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Description: Cows like to stand in water during periods of excessive heat. Heat stress for European breeds of dairy cattle increases as temperatures increase above 25 degrees C, aggravated by direct sun light and higher humidity. Cattle under extreme environmental conditions consume less feed, and suffer reduced milk production as well as reduced fertility. Nonlactating dairy cattle, beef cattle and Bos Indicus cattle are more tolerant of heat than lactating dairy cattle. Shade, misters, fans, and/or water sprinklers also help cattle to maintain an acceptable body temperature.